Some Islamic states, such as the Ottoman Empire, the Crimean Khanate, and the Sokoto caliphate [Nigeria], must be termed slave societies because slaves there were very important numerically as well as a focus of the polities' energies.
They shared certain cultural traits with their Asian contemporaries, such as the use of fire and domesticated dogs; they do not seem to have used other Old World technologies such as grazing animals, domesticated plants, and the wheel.
Archaeological evidence indicates that Paleo-Indians traveling in the interior of Northern America hunted Pleistocene fauna such as woolly mammoths Mammuthus speciesgiant ground sloths Megatherium speciesand a very large species of bison Bison antiquus ; those traveling down the coast subsisted on fish, shellfish, and other maritime products.
Plant foods undoubtedly contributed to the Paleo-Indian diet, although the periglacial environment would have narrowed their quantities and varieties to some extent. Plant remains deteriorate quickly in the archaeological record, which can make direct evidence of their use somewhat scarce.
However, food remains at Paleo-Indian sites including Gault Texas and Jake Bluff Oklahoma indicate that these people used a wide variety of plants and animals. Although the artifacts recovered from many Paleo-Indian sites are predominantly, or even solely, stone tools, it is likely that these groups also made a wide variety of goods from perishable materials that have since disintegrated; certainly, stone tools alone would have proved inadequate to the challenges these peoples encountered.
One of the most distinctive Paleo-Indian artifact types is the Clovis pointthe first of which was discovered on a kill site near what is now Clovis, New Mexico.
Clovis points are lance-shaped, partially fluted, and used for killing mammoths and other very large game see Clovis complex. Clovis points exhibiting characteristic channels, or flutes, that extend from mid-blade to the base of the implement.
Converse, The Archaeological Society of Ohio Beginning some 11, years ago, the climate in the Northern Hemisphere slowly became warmer and drier.
Temperatures rose significantly over the next several thousand years, eventually averaging a few degrees higher than those experienced in the same areas during the early 21st century. Cold-adapted plant species such as birch and spruce retreated to the mountains and the far north, replaced in lower altitudes and latitudes by heat- and drought-resistant species including grasses, forbs, and hardwood trees.
Very large animals such as mammoths and giant ground sloths were unable to cope with the change and became extinct; other species, such as bison, survived by becoming smaller. Archaic peoples As the environment changed, so did indigenous economic strategies.
The most visible change was a further diversification in subsistence.
As megafauna became scarce and cold-weather flora retreated north, groups began to prey upon smaller animals such as deer and elk, to catch fish and collect shellfish from inland rivers and lakes, and to use a wider array of plant foods, including seeds, berries, nuts, and tubers.
People became somewhat more settled, tending to live in larger groups for at least part of the year; they often built seasonal residences along waterways.
They also developed systems of trade between different geographical areas. These changes in diet and settlement and the development of trade are some of the defining characteristics of the Archaic cultures.
Desert Archaic culture split-twig figurine, palm-sized, representing a deer or bighorn sheep. Made from a single willow twig, c. Large fluted points became less popular, replaced by smaller side-notched points more appropriate for dart-based hunting.
Stones used for grinding food. Nativestock Pictures In adopting a broad array of social, economic, and technological innovationsArchaic peoples enjoyed a long period of relative stability. Although the duration of the Archaic Period varied greatly depending upon location, it persisted from as early as bce until at least bce in most of Northern America.
In areas that were either unusually prosperous or, conversely, unsuitable for agriculture—the rich microclimates of California and the salmon-rich Plateau and Pacific Northwest in the former case and the cool interior of northern Canada in the latter—foraging societies persisted well into the 19th century ce.
See also agriculture, origins of.While religion is hard to define, one standard model of religion, used in religious studies courses, was proposed by Clifford Geertz, who defined it as a [ ] system of symbols which acts to establish powerful, pervasive, and long-lasting moods and motivations in men by formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that.
Sep 03, · A discussion of Sharia. Dr Usama Hasan is the imam of the Tawhid Mosque and an advisor to the London Sharia Council.
Faisal Aqtab is a barrister and . For what it’s worth I see God as the hub (the centre of all) and all the religions as the spokes. As you say, we can hear the message in different ways but we are all connected to one God. Religious Beliefs in Africa - comparative info about the diverse religious systems in the living African world.
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Students can save on their education by taking the initiativeblog.com online, self-paced courses and earn widely transferable college credit recommendations for a fraction of the cost of a traditional course. Sep 07, · Slavery in Islam. Although Islam is much credited for moderating the age-old institution of slavery, which was also accepted and endorsed by the other monotheistic religions, Christianity and.