Electrical conductivity[ edit ] Pure water containing no exogenous ions is an excellent insulatorbut not even "deionized" water is completely free of ions. Because water is such a good solvent, it almost always has some solute dissolved in it, often a salt. If water has even a tiny amount of such an impurity, then it can conduct electricity far more readily. It is known that the theoretical maximum electrical resistivity for water is approximately
The energy of the bulk component of a solid substrate is determined by the types of interactions that hold the substrate together. High energy substrates are held together by bonds, while low energy substrates are held together by forces.
Covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds are much stronger than forces such as van der Waals and hydrogen bonding. High energy substrates are more easily wet than low energy substrates.
Surface treatments, such as Corona treatment plasma treatment and acid etching,  can be used to increase the surface energy of the substrate. Additives can also be added to the liquid to decrease its surface energy.
This technique is employed often in paint formulations to ensure that they will be evenly spread on a surface.
This phenomenon arises from the energetic cost of forming a surface. As such the Gibbs free energy of the system is minimized when the surface is curved. Vapor pressure of flat and curved surfaces. The vapor pressure of a curved surface is higher than the vapor pressure of a flat surface due to the Laplace pressure that increases the chemical potential of the droplet causing it to vaporize more than it normally would.
The Kelvin equation is based on thermodynamic principles and is used to describe changes in vapor pressure caused by liquids with curved surfaces. The cause for this change in vapor pressure is the Laplace pressure.
The vapor pressure of a drop is higher than that of a planar surface because the increased Laplace pressure causes the molecules to evaporate more easily.
Conversely, in liquids surrounding a bubble, the pressure with respect to the inner part of the bubble is reduced, thus making it more difficult for molecules to evaporate.
The Kelvin equation can be stated as:Moles and Percents Why do we need Moles? A chemical mole, or mol, is a unit of measure, just like a gram or an ounce.
It is used internationally so that all chemists speak the same measurement language. Water is the chemical substance with chemical formula H 2 O; one molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom.
Water is a tasteless, odorless liquid at ambient temperature and pressure, and appears colorless in small quantities, although it has its own intrinsic very light blue hue. Ice also appears colorless, and water vapor is essentially invisible as a gas.
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