Their policies and standpoints are based primarily on information developed through scientific practices, but they also reflect ethical concerns, including the conservation of the diversity and abundance of fish populations, and respect for life and life processes. Further, these societies believe that their members are responsible not only for advancing scientific knowledge and understanding of fish and fisheries but also for improving human appreciation for these animals and the industries that they support.
The Task Force made twelve recommendations, ranging from the "title should more clearly indicate the document's content" to the "statement should be more concise. Concurrently, an ACRL task force was working on information literacy standards for higher education institutions.
That task force's document, Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education herein referred to as the Competency Standards were approved in January The following Objectives for Information Literacy Instruction: Terminology and Design The Competency Standards are designed to be used in discussions with administrators and academic departments; they suggest institutional goals or performance outcomes.
The IS Objectives provide terminal objectives, those that "break down the overall objectives [the Competency Standards' 'Outcomes'] into specific discrete measurable results.
Thus the instructing librarian may use this document for guidance in developing enabling objectives 4 for an individual teaching session, or for a course, or when collaborating with a course instructor to incorporate information literacy instruction into a specific course.
This document uses the generic term "librarian" because of different situations regarding faculty status for librarians. The numbering system used in the IS Objectives is tied to the numbers used in the print version of the Competency Standards.
The Web version of the Competency Standards uses a slightly different numbering system, i. The IS Objectives may be used in a variety of instructional formats.
For example, one or two objectives may be employed in a minute "one-shot" class and a related assignment.
A librarian working with an instructor to develop a course that infuses information literacy instruction into its content may select several objectives.
An information technology staff person may collaborate with a librarian to incorporate some of the objectives into campus IT workshops.
Many or all of the objectives may be adopted in a comprehensive program of instruction for information literacy or in a Web-based tutorial. Thus the IS Objectives may be used in part or whole. They expand upon the Competency Standards.
The IS Objectives may be used effectively by beginning instructors as well as by experienced teachers, by librarians and other classroom instructors. They are applicable to just one or to numerous instructional sessions with the same individuals.
The IS Objectives serve as a detailed supplementary aid to librarians who wish to break the Competency Standards down into smaller instructional components.
They are designed to help academic librarians identify and target particular information literacy instructional outcomes. As such, they offer a variety of possible objectives from which to choose.
Librarians may want to refer to both the Competency Standards and the IS Objectives when discussing library and information literacy instruction with faculty and administrators or when planning, delivering, evaluating and revising instructional programs and proposals.
Regardless of the stage of the information literacy planning or implementation, librarians should apply such elements of the IS Objectives as are appropriate to the local setting and circumstances. The IS Objectives provide suggestions for generating ideas about teaching concepts and skills to students, or for ways to talk about information literacy instruction with course instructors.
The document provides a support structure on which librarians can build in creative and individual ways. Responsibility for Information Literacy Instruction Information literacy encompasses more than good information-seeking behavior.
It incorporates the abilities to recognize when information is needed and then to phrase questions designed to gather the needed information. It includes evaluating and then using information appropriately and ethically once it is retrieved from any media, including electronic, human or print sources.
The responsibility for helping people become information literate is best shared across a campus, as is clearly indicated in the Competency Standards. Ideally, administrators support information literacy goals for their institutions.
Course instructors help their students achieve information literacy in their chosen fields, and librarians and other campus professionals collaborate with course instructors in this effort. Levels of collaboration between librarians and academic departments differ among institutions as well as within any one institution.
One college may determine that one of the Competency Standards' components indicates a clear need for collaboration while another institution may view the same component as primarily a responsibility of the library's instruction program.
The tags suggest possible collaborative situations. They serve as reminders of the need for librarians to share in campus-wide collaborative efforts to develop and achieve information literacy goals.
IS Objectives Not Written for All Competency Standards Objectives were written only for Performance Indicators in the Competency Standards that could best be addressed by the librarian or by the librarian and course instructor collaboratively.
Performance Indicators such as, "The information literate student applies new and prior information to the planning and creation of a particular product or performance," refer to components of learning and instruction in ways not usually addressed by librarians. Librarians could, of course, help course instructors develop objectives in these areas.
The IS Objectives and Evaluating Information Although not all the objectives deal explicitly with the evaluation of information, the need for evaluation and critical thinking is implicit in all stages of research.
An objective for Competency Standard 3, Performance Indicator 4, provides an example: The objective in the example above also relates closely to the objective for Competency Standard 1, Performance Indicator 1, Outcome 5:Guidelines for Writing a Rationale The guidelines below will promote consistency as well as provide direction and support for writing rationales individually, in small collegial groups, or in departments.
Guidelines and Measures provides users a place to find information about AHRQ's legacy guidelines and measures clearinghouses, National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) and National Quality Measures Clearinghouse (NQMC).
Beginning the Proposal Process. As with writing a regular academic paper, research proposals are generally organized the same way . Developing your Research Statement Britt Argow, Wellesley College, and Rachel Beane, Bowdoin College, wrote this page for the Pursuing Academic Careers Workshop.
Variably called a Statement of Research Goals or Interests, Research Agenda, or Research Statement, many academic job searches give you the opportunity to present your scholarly. Guidelines for writing a research project synopsis or protocol Jayadev Betkerur Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, JSS Medical College Hospital, Mysore, Karnataka, India.
Guidelines for Writing a Thesis or Dissertation, Linda Childers Hon, Ph.D. 1. Most research begins with a question.
Think about which topics and theories you are interested in and what you 8. Get a copy of the graduate school's guidelines for writing theses and dissertations and follow these guidelines exactly. Writing. 9.