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Oculesics Oculesics, a subcategory of body language, is the study of eye movement, eye behavior, gaze, and eye-related nonverbal communication. As a social or behavioral science, oculesics is a form of nonverbal communication focusing on Language culture communication study notes meaning from eye Language culture communication study notes.
For example, in traditional Anglo-Saxon culture, avoiding eye contact usually portrays a lack of confidence, certainty, or truthfulness. Haptic communication Haptics, a subcategory of Body Language, is the study of touching and how it is used in communication.
Touching can be used to sooth, for amusement during play, to flirt, to express power and maintain bonds between people, such as with baby and mother.
Touching can carry distinct emotions and also show the intensity of those emotions. Touch absent of other cues can signal anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude and sympathy depending on the length and type of touching that is performed.
Many factors also contribute to the meaning of touching such as the length of the touch and location on the body in which the touching takes place. Research has also shown that people can accurately decode distinct emotions by merely watching others communicate via touch. Touching stresses how special the message is that is being sent by the initiator.
For example, Jones and Yarbrough explained that strategic touching is a series of touching usually with an ulterior or hidden motive thus making them seem to be using touch as a game to get someone to do something for them.
The amount of touching that occurs within a culture is also culturally dependent. Proxemics Diagram of Edward T.
Lecture Notes Course Home Syllabus Study Materials Download Course Materials [T] = Teaching Notes from the Sloan Communication Program, courtesy of JoAnne Yates. Used with permission. Lecture note files. SES # TOPICS RESOURCES; 1: Introduction to the Course; Strategy and Structure. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 75, lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. Business Arabic, Intermediate Level: Language, Culture and Communication [Raji M. Rammuny] on initiativeblog.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Raji M. Rammuny's Business Arabic, Intermediate Level is intended for intermediate learners who have completed at least two regular years of Arabic study. It contains twenty-one lessons.
Hall 's personal reaction bubblesshowing radius in feet Another notable area in the nonverbal world of body language is that of spatial relationships, which is also known as Proxemics. Introduced by Edward T. Hall inproxemics is the study of measurable distances between people as they interact with one another.
Hall also came up with four distinct zones in which most men operate: In addition to physical distance, the level of intimacy between conversants can be determined by "socio-petal socio-fugal axis", or the "angle formed by the axis of the conversants' shoulders".
For example, when people talk they like to face each other. If forced to sit side by side, their body language will try to compensate for this lack of eye-to-eye contact by leaning in shoulder-to-shoulder. Hall suggested that "physical contact between two people They often greet one another by kissing on the cheeks.
North Americanson the other hand, prefer to shake hands. While they have made some physical contact with the shaking of the hand, they still maintain a certain amount of physical space between the other person.
The manner in which something is said can affect how it should be interpreted. Shouting, smiling, irony and so on may add a layer of meaning which is neither pure body language nor speech. Attitude[ edit ] Human communication is extremely complex and one must look at the whole in order to make any determination as to the attitudes being expressed.
Whilst there is a wider debate about the percentage share which should be attributed to each of the three contributing factors, it is generally agreed upon that body language plays a fundamental role in determining the attitude a person conveys.
A person may alter their body language in order to alter the attitude they convey; this may in turn influence the rapport they have with another person. For instance, if an interviewer adopts a formal attitude then this conveys a more business like impression, which may encourage the interviewee to give more serious answers.
This may develop a more professional rapport overall between them. Alternatively, if the interviewer adopts an informal attitude, this conveys a more open and casual impression. This may be used to elicit a more open response from the interviewee, encourage them to give more revealing answers, and potentially develop a more personal rapport.
Broadly, the theories can be categorized into two models: Where Darwin notes similarity in expression among animals and humans, the Cultural Equivalence Model notes similarity in expression across cultures in humans, even though they may be completely different.
One of the strongest pieces of evidence that supports this model was a study conducted by Ekman and Friesenwhere members of a preliterate tribe in Papua New Guinea reliably recognized the facial expressions of individuals from the United States.
Culturally isolated and with no exposure to US media, there was no possibility of cross-cultural transmission to the Papuan tribesmen. Tracy and Robins concluded that the expression of pride includes an expanded posture of the body with the head tilted back, with a low-intensity face and a non-Duchenne smile raising the corner of the mouth.
The expression of shame includes the hiding of the face, either by turning it down or covering it with the hands. Despite that, there have been certain areas where the conscious harnessing of body language - both in action and comprehension - have been useful.
The use of body language has also seen an increase in application and use commercially, with large volumes of books and guides published designed to teach people how to be conscious of body language, and how to use it to benefit them in certain scenarios.
Body language has seen application in instructional teaching in areas such as second-language acquisition  and also to enhance the teaching of subjects like mathematics. A related use of body language is as a substitution to verbal language to people who lack the ability to use that, be it because of deafness or aphasia.
Body language has also been applied in the process of detecting deceit through micro-expressions, both in law enforcement and even in the world of poker.
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LING LANGUAGE, CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION STUDY NOTES Week 1 Introduction Systemic functional social semiotics asks questions about meaning making in cultural contexts e.g. functions of language Experiential function: Representational meaning- what does the text represent?
The login information you entered does not match our records. Lecture Notes Course Home Syllabus Study Materials Download Course Materials [T] = Teaching Notes from the Sloan Communication Program, courtesy of JoAnne Yates.
Used with permission. Lecture note files. SES # TOPICS RESOURCES; 1: Introduction to the Course; Strategy and Structure.
grammatical accuracy at the expense of communication.
To best facilitate the study of language and culture, the course is taught almost exclusively in French. Note: On the AP French Language and Culture Exam, all directions, questions, and texts are presented in French.
Francophone Films in ADIFF NYC Various locations in NYC: Cinema Village, MIST Harlem, the Dwyer Cultural Center, The Riverside Theater and Columbia University.